Ground Water Pollution in India

Ground Water Pollution in India is a stark reality that has been neglected for the longest time ever. For the less-enlightened, groundwater is one of the major sources of water for many people for both domestic and industrial purposes. As for a country like India, a lot depends upon the groundwater sources. Surprisingly, the entire agricultural industry is solely dependant upon surface water, i.e. lakes, and ponds. However, for areas where surface water is not available, groundwater is the main source. But, the problem arises if and when the groundwater is also massively polluted. The current groundwater pollution trend has grown to become a matter of concern across the globe. A CGWB (Central groundwater Board) backed research has unearthed some groundbreaking facts. It has been estimated that around 433 BCM per year of total groundwater reserve is found in India. Out of this, 35 BCM/year is utilized by the plants, and 398 BCM is available for consumption by humans. This further bought to light that 89% of the groundwater is utilized for irrigation. From the remaining, 9% is utilized by the general population for domestic use, and the final 2% goes into industrial use. 

There have been massive cases of groundwater pollution reported in India. This has emerged from growing into a matter of prime concerns, as a whopping 80% of the Indian population is directly dependant on groundwater alone. With the growing cases of groundwater pollution on the rise, there has been a considerable increase in health hazards due to the same. So, what are some of the major reasons for groundwater pollution in India? Let us find out:

1. In Nature

Sometimes, Mother Nature has her way of turning on her wrath. Various natural phenomena like Volcanoes and metamorphic rocks are common examples. Mainly, these natural phenomena are accompanied by the release of toxins into the immediate environment. As these are “expelled” onto the ground surface, the toxins soon make their way into the deeper levels of the soil. This leads to large-scale groundwater pollution.

2. The Industries

Industrial wastes are perhaps the major culprits when it comes to reasons for groundwater pollution. It is a no-secret that the industries in-flux large amounts of the waste directly into the nearest available water body of any type. The neo-modern petroleum production companies are one of the main contributors to the release of Brine onto the soil surface. Other Chemical releases that cause the groundwater to turn salty are Mercury, Zinc, Cadmium, and Lead.

3. The Agriculture

The large-scale use of fertilizers for agriculture is one of the major reasons for groundwater pollution. This is mainly because when the fertilizers are used in excessive amounts, they tend to ‘fall’ onto the soil surface. This later submerges into the deeper levels of the soil to cause large-scale groundwater pollution. Wrongful methods of irrigation can also lead to pollution.

4. The Humans

It is no brainer that man contributes massively to the causes of pollution in nature. These mainly include seepage and landfills, burying the garbage underground. There are also cases where untimely and unlimited groundwater extraction has led to its depletion in certain regions. One of the latest reasons for concerns is the installation of nuclear-based power generators that lead to the release of Uranium into the soil. This in turn ‘kills’ the healthy microorganisms in the soil, thus, leading to further pollution.
It has been reported that over-exploitation of groundwater has been observed in 16 states in India. These are around the regions of Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan, Punjab.

What Happens If Groundwater Is Polluted?

Groundwater contamination in India is a real issue that has initiated a chain reaction of undesirable events. Let us take a look at some of the main causes of groundwater pollution:

1. Effect On The Economy

2. The Health Of A Population

3. The Environment

4. The Agriculture

How Can Groundwater Pollution Be Prevented?

Our natural resources are not exactly our private property but our concern. After all, each one of us is entitled to its utilization without comprehending its consequences. Irresponsibility and mishandling of natural resources have led to pollution and its subsequent depletion. So, what can we do to prevent groundwater pollution? Here are a few tips that should be on our ‘to-do’ list over time:

    • Proper disposal of waste, do not simply dump it around.
    • Safe storage of chemicals and fuels.
    •  To limit our usage of Chemicals and dependency upon them.
    • To establish a systemic checking of groundwater and the surrounding region for traces of poison and pollution.
    • To maintain the use responsibly the on-site septic systems.
    • To ensure the protection of Chemicals and Fuels from being washed away by rains.
    • To regulate a proper environment Audit.
    • To establish an emergency response plan.
    • The government should set up household hazardous waste collection.
    • To educate the population about the causes, reasons, and prevention of groundwater pollution. 
    • To be able to put to action protection legislation and programs. 


Why is groundwater important? Well, the reasons are plenty and too many to ignore simply. The protection and maintenance of our natural resources should be the responsibility of every citizen of the world. After all, there is no ‘Planet-B’. We need to understand the importance of leading a pollution-free life and modulate our lifestyle accordingly. For, this the foremost plan of action is to educate the population, the methods of conservation, prevention, and preservation of our resources. Groundwater is a source of water supply for various regions of the country, and its pollution can lead to large-scale loss of life in the long run. So, it is high time we wake up and realize that Mother Earth is bleeding, and we need to take charge.

Liked our content? Share it with Your Friends.

Comments are closed.